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Description :

A medium sized deciduous tree 10 to 15 m tall. The crown is spreading with stem diameters of 38 to 48 cm. Leaves are compound, large 16 to 25 cm long. It is dioecious. The female flowers are in long, 15 to 25 cm, bunches. The tree flowers between March and May. It has no observed insect or disease problems. It can be reproduced both from seed and by vegetative means. Its growth is slow with a diameter growth of 0.5 to 0.75 cm/yr. It reaches maturity between 50 and 60 years of age. Twisted with medium fine, somewhat uneven grain. Sapwood is light brown and heartwood is dark, reddish brown with black streaks. Dense with a specific gravity of 0.68 and a calorific value of 5100 kcal/kg.

Distribution :

The tree is native to Pakistan, India, and Afghanistan cultivated in many parts of the world. In Pakistan it is found in the foothills of Azad Kashmir, the Gilgit Baltistan, Murree hills, Rawalpindi, Hazara, Peshawar, Swat, Chitral, the Salt range and Balochistan. Quite common as an avenue tree in Islamabad. A moderately tolerant tree that grows well on shallow, calcareous, stony, and sandy soils. It is drought hardy and will grow on steep hill sides with hot aspects. It requires a precipitation zone of 400 to 1250 mm/yr. It prefers a humid sub-humid, cool sub-tropical monsoon to semi-arid winter/monsoon climate with a temperature range of -5 to 40°C at elevations between 400 and 1250 m.

Uses :

This tree has been over harvested because of its desirable fuel characteristics. It is a valuable member of the mixed coniferous forest and should be protected. It has potential for large scale, mixed plantings with Chir pine to protect watersheds. Also used for ornamental, fodder, furniture and wood carving, and medicinal (galls are considered an expectorant) purposes.